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TOPIC: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a psychosocial intervention with a considerable body of evidence for its effectiveness in helping people with severe psychiatric disorders to obtain and maintain competitive jobs. In the last decades several European studies have replicated earlier American outcomes, generating widespread interest about its implementation in Europe. PURPOSE: This article describes and compares details about achievements and challenges of IPS in 4 European countries: the United Kingdom, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain. SOURCES USED: This description draws from published and nonpublished material about policy, development of services, and services evaluation. RESULTS: In the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, empirical studies exploring the consistency of results over time and the effectiveness of IPS adaptations to local needs and special population are in course. In the United Kingdom, IPS has become national policy, as well as in some regions of Italy and Spain. Training is quite extensive in the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, developing well in Italy and Spain. Implementation seems to be less straightforward, mostly because of deeply rooted cultural values regarding both work and mental health care. Strong local leadership is still required. In all countries contingencies related to the current economic crisis seems to have increased interest in IPS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: With the converging forces of strong local leadership, rapid economic changes, and slow cultural shifts, IPS may soon become a priority intervention in Europe for ensuring that people living with serious mental illnesses are able to obtain competitive employment.

Original publication




Journal article


Psychiatr Rehabil J

Publication Date





123 - 128


Employment, Supported, Humans, Italy, Mental Disorders, Netherlands, Program Evaluation, Rehabilitation, Vocational, Spain, United Kingdom