Clinical proton MR spectroscopy in central nervous system disorders.
Oz G., Alger JR., Barker PB., Bartha R., Bizzi A., Boesch C., Bolan PJ., Brindle KM., Cudalbu C., Dinçer A., Dydak U., Emir UE., Frahm J., González RG., Gruber S., Gruetter R., Gupta RK., Heerschap A., Henning A., Hetherington HP., Howe FA., Hüppi PS., Hurd RE., Kantarci K., Klomp DWJ., Kreis R., Kruiskamp MJ., Leach MO., Lin AP., Luijten PR., Marjańska M., Maudsley AA., Meyerhoff DJ., Mountford CE., Nelson SJ., Pamir MN., Pan JW., Peet AC., Poptani H., Posse S., Pouwels PJW., Ratai E-M., Ross BD., Scheenen TW., Schuster C., Smith ICP., Soher BJ., Tkáč I., Vigneron DB., Kauppinen RA., MRS Consensus Group None.
A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [(1)H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of (1)H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of (1)H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which (1)H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units.