The relationship between suicide and violence in schizophrenia: analysis of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) dataset.
Witt K., Hawton K., Fazel S.
BACKGROUND: Suicide and violence often co-occur in the general population as well as in mentally ill individuals. Few studies, however, have assessed whether these suicidal behaviors are predictive of violence risk in mental illness. AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate whether suicidal behaviors, including suicidal ideation, threats, and attempts, are significantly associated with increased violence risk in individuals with schizophrenia. METHOD: Data for these analyses were obtained from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) trial, a randomized controlled trial of antipsychotic medication in 1460 adults with schizophrenia. Univariate Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for suicidal ideation, threats, and attempts. Multivariate analyses were conducted to adjust for common confounding factors, including: age, alcohol or drug misuse, major depression, antisocial personality disorder, depression, hostility, positive symptom, and poor impulse control scores. Tests of discrimination, calibration, and reclassification assessed the incremental predictive validity of suicidal behaviors for the prediction of violence risk. RESULTS: Suicidal threats and attempts were significantly associated with violence in both males and females with schizophrenia with little change following adjustment for common confounders. Only suicidal threats, however, were associated with a significant increase in incremental validity beyond age, diagnosis with a comorbid substance use disorder, and recent violent behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Suicidal threats are independently associated with violence risk in both males and females with schizophrenia, and may improve violence risk prediction.