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The extent to which cognitive development and abilities are dependent on language remains controversial. In this study, the analogical reasoning skills of deaf and hard of hearing children are explored. Two groups of children (deaf and hard of hearing children with either cochlear implants or hearing aids and hearing children) completed tests of verbal and spatial analogical reasoning. Their vocabulary and grammar skills were also assessed to provide a measure of language attainment. Results indicated significant differences between the deaf and hard of hearing children (regardless of type of hearing device) and their hearing peers on vocabulary, grammar, and verbal reasoning tests. Regression analyses revealed that in the group of deaf and hard of hearing children, but not in the hearing group, the language measures were significant predictors of verbal analogical reasoning, when age and spatial analogical reasoning ability were controlled for. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ

Publication Date





189 - 197


Child, Cochlear Implants, Deafness, Hearing Aids, Humans, Language Arts, Language Development, Persons With Hearing Impairments, Regression Analysis, Space Perception, Thinking, Verbal Behavior, Vocabulary