Pattern classification of deep brain local field potentials for brain computer interfaces
Mamun KA., Huda MN., MacE M., Lutman ME., Stein J., Liu X., Aziz T., Vaidyanathan R., Wang S.
The trend of current brain computer interfaces (BCI) seek to establish bi-directional communication with the brain, for instance, recovering motor functions by externally controlling devices and directly stimulating the brain. This will greatly assist paralyzed individuals through bypassing the damaged brain region. The key process of this communication interface is to decode movements from neural signals and encode information into neural activity. The majority of decoding or pattern classification studies have focused on cortical areas for BCIs, but deep brain structures have also been involved in motor control. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the basal ganglia is involved in the preparation, execution and imagining of movements, and may be an alternative source for driving BCIs. This study therefore aimed to classify patterns of deep brain local field potentials (LFPs) related to execution of visually cued movements. LFPs were recorded bilaterally from the STN through deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted in patients with Parkinson's disease. The frequency dependent components of the LFPs were extracted using the wavelet packet transform. In each frequency component, signal features were extracted using an alternative approach called neural synchronization by analyzing Granger causality between the STN. Based on these extracted features, a new feature selection strategy, namely weighted sequential feature selection (WSFS) was developed to efficiently select the optimal feature subset. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was implemented alongside this novel feature extraction and selection strategy, and evaluated using a cross-validation procedure. Using this optimised feature subset, average correct pattern classification accuracy of movement (left or right) reached 76.0±3.1%. The results obtained in this study are encouraging and suggest that the neural activity in the deep neural circuit (basal ganglia) can be used for controlling BCIs. © 2012 IEEE.