The development and evaluation of a large-scale self-referral CBT-I intervention for men who have insomnia: an exploratory study.
Archer M., Brown JSL., Idusohan H., Coventry S., Manoharan A., Espie CA.
BACKGROUND: Whilst effective psychological treatments such as CBT-I have been developed for insomnia, few services provide CBT-I and awareness of CBT-I is low among referrers. In addition, men tend to seek help less frequently for their insomnia than women. This paper describes the development and evaluation of psycho-educational CBT-I workshops, each for up to 25 people, and designed to be acceptable to men. METHOD: The CBT-I programme was based on Morin and Espie (2003), and adapted into a self-referral one-day workshop format designed specifically to improve access. Workshops were held on Saturdays in leisure centres. A one group pretest-posttest design was used and assessments were collected before and 6 weeks after each workshop. Over a 6-month period, 74 men self-referred, and attended the Introductory Talks preceding the workshops. Of these, 49.3% had never sought help from their GP, 66.2% suffered from clinical insomnia (ISI) and 61.6% were experiencing elevated depression symptoms (BDI over 10). RESULTS: At follow-up, the workshops were found to be effective in reducing insomnia and depression. Satisfaction ratings with the workshops were very high. CONCLUSIONS: Given these promising results, further work is now proposed for a larger controlled study with a longer-term follow-up.