On the colour and shape of still and sparkling water: Insights from online and laboratory-based testing
Ngo MK., Piqueras-Fiszman B., Spence C.
We report the results of a quick and simple online questionnaire designed to rapidly assess the crossmodal correspondences that exist between the oral-somatosensory experiences associated with still and sparkling water and certain colours (blue, red, or green) and shapes (organic vs. angular). The results of this online data collection technique proved to be comparable to (and consistent with) data collected in the laboratory, revealing that still water was consistently matched with organic abstract shapes and sparkling water with angular abstract shapes. Both still and sparkling water were preferentially associated with the colour blue, rather than red or green. Additionally, these results were corroborated in a follow-up experiment where the shapes and colours were placed against a range of background bottle designs. The implications of these results for the design of labels and packaging for water are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.