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The recent development of simple, DNA-based methods for the determination of an individual's sex will make possible large-scale studies of sex allocation and the consequence of gender in birds. Birds provide ideal systems for studying these questions in vertebrates, as so much is known about their biology and determinants of fitness. Until recently, however, little quantitative work has been possible because of the difficulty in determining gender in most cases. Recent studies suggest that biased sex allocation be more widespread in birds than has been realized.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Ecol Evol

Publication Date





255 - 259