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Objects disoriented in plane away from the upright and objects rotated in depth producing foreshortening are harder to identify than canonical views. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants named pictures of familiar objects. There was no interaction between plane and depth rotation effects on initial presentation or after practice. Experiment 3 was a dual-task psychological refractory period study. Participants classified a high-low tone with a speeded keypress and then named a canonical, plane-rotated, or foreshortened view of an object. Naming was slower when the picture was presented 50 ms after the tone compared with 800 ms after the tone. Plane rotation effects were reduced (but not eliminated) at the short tone-picture stimulus onset asynchrony, but foreshortening effects were not reduced. The results implicate an early, prebottleneck locus for some processes compensating for plane rotation and a subsequent bottleneck or postbottleneck locus for compensation for foreshortening.

Original publication




Journal article


J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform

Publication Date





568 - 581


Adult, Depth Perception, Discrimination Learning, Female, Humans, Male, Orientation, Pattern Recognition, Visual, Perceptual Distortion, Reaction Time, Semantics, Size Perception, Verbal Behavior