Modulation of shock-end virtual electrode polarisation as a direct result of 3D fluorescent photon scattering.
Bishop MJ., Rodriguez B., Trayanova N., Gavaghan DJ.
Due to the large transmural variation in transmembrane potential following the application of strong electric shocks, it is thought that fluorescent photon scattering from depth plays a significant role in optical signal modulation at shock-end. For the first time, a model of photon scattering is used to accurately synthesize fluorescent signals over the irregular geometry of the rabbit ventricles following the application of such strong shocks. A bidomain representation of electrical activity is combined with finite element solutions to the photon diffusion equation, simulating both the excitation and emission processes, over an anatomically-based model of rabbit ventricular geometry and fiber orientation. Photon scattering from within a 3D volume beneath the epicardial optical recording site is shown to transduce differences in transmembrane potential within this volume through the myocardial wall. This leads directly to a significantly modulated optical signal response with respect to that predicted by the bidomain simulations, distorting epicardial virtual electrode polarization produced at shock-end. Furthermore, we show that this degree of distortion is very sensitive to the optical properties of the tissue, an important variable to consider during experimental mapping set-ups. These findings provide an essential first-step in aiding the interpretation of experimental optical mapping recordings following strong defibrillation shocks.