Models of crossed categorization and intergroup relations.
Hewstone M., Islam MR., Judd CM.
Two studies explored 6 models of crossed categorization. In Experiment 1, Muslims (majority) and Hindus (minority) in Bangladesh evaluated 1 of 4 target groups created by crossing religion (Hindu or Muslim) and nationality (Bangladeshi or Indian) and then rated the target group's perceived variability. Experiment 2 was an extension of the research, including new measures. Both studies showed additive effects of religion and nationality, as predicted by 3 models, a strong effect of category dominance for religion, and out-group homogeneity only when the religious in-group was the dominant and majority group in its country. Experiment 2 also showed a significant relationship between discrimination based on religion and self-esteem and marginal support for the hierarchical ordering model. When and how specific models of crossed categorization might operate in different intergroup contexts are discussed.