The cytoarchitecture of sulcal folding in Heschl's sulcus and the temporal cortex in the normal brain and schizophrenia: lamina thickness and cell density.
Chance SA., Tzotzoli PM., Vitelli A., Esiri MM., Crow TJ.
Developmental and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, may be associated with altered cortical thickness and folding. Two studies were performed: (1) to assess cortical layering around a sulcus; cortical thickness, relative thickness of the supragranular (I-III):infragranular (IV-VI) layers, and cell density were assessed at anatomically defined points around Heschl's sulcus in tissue from 10 controls and 10 schizophrenia patients. (2) To sample sulci of contrasting prominence; sulcal depth, width, lamina thickness, and cell density from laminae II-VI were taken from various sulci within the temporal lobes from another group of 6 controls and 10 patients. Reduced cell density was found in the fundi of sulci in schizophrenia. Independent of diagnosis; increased sulcal prominence in temporal cortex accompanies reduced lamina thickness (particularly layers V and VI), deep layers show negative relationships between cell density and layer thickness, and total cortex width in Heschl's sulcus reduces by half at the bottom compared to the top. Furthermore, compared to the supragranular layers, the infragranular division is relatively thicker at the top of a gyrus, equal in the wall of the sulcus and relatively thinner at the bottom. Many effects of sulcal folding on laminar proportions in controls are similar in schizophrenia. However, cell density is less at the bottom of some sulci in the temporal lobe in schizophrenia. Sampling methods should consider that cortical folding affects cell and lamina distribution in the sampled region in a highly localised manner.