Bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia with volunteer unrelated donors using ex vivo or in vivo T-cell depletion: major prognostic impact of HLA class I identity between donor and recipient.
Spencer A., Szydlo RM., Brookes PA., Kaminski E., Rule S., van Rhee F., Ward KN., Hale G., Waldmann H., Hows JM., Batchelor JR., Goldman JM.
Between August 1985 and July 1994, we performed 115 volunteer unrelated donor (VUD) bone marrow transplants (BMT) for first chronic phase (n = 86) or advanced phase (n = 29) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Standard serologic HLA typing of potential donors and recipients was supplemented with one-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF) for class I proteins, allogenotyping for DR and DQ alleles using DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the measurement of antirecipient major histocompatibility complex (MHC) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor cells in the donors' blood (CTLp assay). Recipients were conditioned for transplantation with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation (n = 103) or high-dose chemotherapy alone (n = 12). Twenty eight recipients received ex vivo T-cell-depleted marrow, and 84 underwent some form of in vivo T-cell depletion. The probability of severe (grades III or IV) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 24%, and that of extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), 38%. Proportional hazards regression analysis showed an association between low frequency CTLp and a reduced incidence of severe aGVHD (relative risk [RR], 0.28; P = .0035). The probability of relapse at 3 years was 23%, with first chronic phase disease being independently associated with a lower risk of relapse (RR, 0.71; P = .01). The overall leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 3 years was 37%; the LFS for the first chronic phase and advanced phase recipients was 41% and 26%, respectively. First chronic phase disease (RR, 0.56; P = .063) and the combination of recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegativity and an IEF-matched donor (RR, 0.48; P = .011) were both associated with improved LFS. The probabilities of survival and LFS for patients under 40 years of age transplanted in first chronic phase from an IEF-matched donor were 73% and 50%, respectively. We conclude that VUD BMT is a reasonable option for patients with CML; when using ex vivo or in vivo T-cell depletion, optimal results are achieved in patients transplanted in chronic phase with marrow from donors without demonstrable class I HLA mismatch and a low CTLp frequency.