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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily presents with features of bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, and has, as part of its core pathology, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. There is a great need for the development of a reliable diagnostic tool to improve promptness of diagnosis, definition of disease subtypes, and to monitor disease progression and demonstrate treatment efficacy in the case of disease modifying therapies. Current biomarkers range from objective clinical tools, to neuroimaging, to 'wet' markers involving blood and cerebrospinal fluid. To date, all candidate biomarkers for PD have failed to be developed into a clinically useful tool. Ideally, a combination of sensitive markers will be needed, not only to predict the onset of PD, but also to help in subtype classification and to follow progression. Here, we critically review various PD biomarker studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Rev Neurother

Publication Date





1841 - 1852


Biomarkers, Humans, Parkinson Disease