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The idea that the brain is immunologically privileged and displays an atypical leukocyte recruitment profile following injury has influenced our ideas about how signals might be carried between brain and the periphery. For many, this has encouraged a cerebrocentric view of immunological responses to CNS injury, with little reference to the potential contribution from other organs. However, it is clear that bidirectional pathways between the brain and the peripheral immune system are important in the pathogenesis of CNS disease. In recent years, we have begun to understand the signals that are carried to the periphery and discovered new functions for known chemokines, made by the liver in response to brain injury, as important regulators of the CNS inflammatory response.

Original publication




Journal article


Brain Behav Immun

Publication Date





534 - 540


Acute-Phase Reaction, Brain Diseases, Brain Injuries, Chemokines, Cytokines, Humans, Liver