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Antigenic variation in a major discontinuous site (site D) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C has been evaluated with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Isolates representing the major evolutionary sublines previously defined for serotype C were compared. Extensive variation, comparable to that of continuous epitopes within the hypervariable immunodominant site A (the VP1 G-H loop), was found. The amino acid sequences of the complete capsids of three antigenically highly divergent FMDVs (C1 Haute Loire-Fr/69, C5 Argentina/69, and C3 Argentina/85) have been determined and compared with the corresponding sequences previously determined for seven additional type C viruses. Differences in antigenicity are due to a very limited number of substitutions of surface amino acids accessible to antibodies and located within antigenic sites previously identified on FMDV. A significant number of residues at these positions were also replaced in monoclonal antibody escape mutants. Depending on the variants compared, replacements within site A or at site D, or at both sites, contributed significantly to their antigenic differences. Examples of divergence mediated by a few amino acid replacements were found among FMDVs of Europe and South America. The results suggest that within a serotype of FMDV, antigenically highly divergent viruses can arise in the field by very limited sequence variation at exposed key residues of each of several antigenic sites.

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Virol

Publication Date

03/1994

Volume

68

Pages

1407 - 1417

Keywords

Amino Acid Sequence, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Viral, Antigens, Viral, Aphthovirus, Capsid, Capsid Proteins, Genetic Variation, Immunodominant Epitopes, Models, Molecular, Molecular Sequence Data, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Serotyping