Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

This paper updates and builds on a previous White Paper in this journal that some of us contributed to concerning the molecular and cellular basis of cardiac neurobiology of heart disease. Here we focus on recent findings that underpin cardiac autonomic development, novel intracellular pathways and neuroplasticity. Throughout we highlight unanswered questions and areas of controversy. Whilst some neurochemical pathways are already demonstrating prognostic viability in patients with heart failure, we also discuss the opportunity to better understand sympathetic impairment by using patient specific stem cells that provides pathophysiological contextualization to study 'disease in a dish'. Novel imaging techniques and spatial transcriptomics are also facilitating a road map for target discovery of molecular pathways that may form a therapeutic opportunity to treat cardiac dysautonomia.

Original publication




Journal article


J Physiol

Publication Date



CamKII, autonomic nervous system, cardiac physiology, cardiovascular disease, induced pluripotent stem cells, neuron‐myocyte co‐cultures, optical mapping, optogenetics