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OBJECTIVE: No method has yet been established to summarise different objective indicators of social outcomes into one score. The study aimed to develop and test a simple, brief and meaningful index of social outcomes that can be used across a broad range of mental health studies and is potentially obtainable from routine documentation. METHOD: An index capturing employment, accommodation and living situation (range from 0 to 6; SIX) was devised and tested in three longitudinal datasets of patients with severe mental illness from Germany, Sweden and the UK. RESULTS: SIX showed an almost normal distribution cross-sectionally in all three datasets. Between 58 and 78% of patients changed scores over time. Change scores were weakly associated with change scores of symptoms, quality of life, global functioning and disability. CONCLUSION: A simple method to summarise different indicators of social outcomes provides meaningful results. It can be widely used in research and routine care.

Original publication




Journal article


Acta Psychiatr Scand

Publication Date





57 - 63


Adult, Anxiety Disorders, Case Management, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Female, Germany, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Mental Disorders, Middle Aged, Mood Disorders, Outcome Assessment (Health Care), Personality Disorders, Psychometrics, Psychotic Disorders, Quality of Life, Rehabilitation, Vocational, Reproducibility of Results, Schizophrenia, Schizophrenic Psychology, Social Adjustment, Substance-Related Disorders, Sweden, United Kingdom