The LCR-like alpha-globin positive regulatory element functions as an enhancer in transiently transfected cells during erythroid differentiation.
Pondel MD., George M., Proudfoot NJ.
A positive regulatory element (PRE) similar to the locus control region (LCR) of the human beta-globin gene cluster has recently been identified 40 kb upstream of the human zeta-globin mRNA cap site (Higgs D.R. W.G. Wood, A.P. Jarman, J. Sharpe, J. Lida, I.M. Pretorius, and H. Ayyub. 1990). We investigated the influence of the alpha PRE on human alpha-globin promoter activity in transiently transfected cells. The introduction of the alpha PRE into alpha-globin promoter/CAT expression constructs increased alpha-globin promoter activity by 15-30 fold in a human erythroid cell line (Putko) as well as in mouse erythroleukemia cells (MELCs) induced with hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). When these constructs were introduced into uninduced MELCs or HeLa cells, only a 2-3 fold increase in alpha-globin promoter activity was observed. Deletion of 600 bp of alpha-globin 5' flanking sequences containing six putative SP1-binding sites had no significant effect on levels of alpha-globin promoter enhancement by the alpha PRE. We further demonstrated that the alpha PRE and HS2 of the beta-LCR could similarly enhance transcriptional activity of the SV40 early promoter in HMBA induced MELCs. Finally, we showed that alpha-globin promoter activity in the presence of the alpha PRE increased with continued HMBA exposure and was coincident with transcriptional activation of endogenous globin genes.