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Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) present revolutionary opportunities to enhance our understanding of animal behaviour and conservation strategies. Using elephants, a crucial species in Africa and Asia's protected areas, as our focal point, we delve into the role of AI and ML in their conservation. Given the increasing amounts of data gathered from a variety of sensors like cameras, microphones, geophones, drones and satellites, the challenge lies in managing and interpreting this vast data. New AI and ML techniques offer solutions to streamline this process, helping us extract vital information that might otherwise be overlooked. This paper focuses on the different AI-driven monitoring methods and their potential for improving elephant conservation. Collaborative efforts between AI experts and ecological researchers are essential in leveraging these innovative technologies for enhanced wildlife conservation, setting a precedent for numerous other species.

Original publication




Journal article


J R Soc Interface

Publication Date





artificial intelligence, elephant conservation, elephant management, elephant olfactory, machine learning, wildlife monitoring