Preliminary experience of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoproliferative disorders using BEAM-CAMPATH conditioning: an effective regimen with low procedure-related toxicity.
Cull GM., Haynes AP., Byrne JL., Carter GI., Miflin G., Rebello P., Hale G., Waldmann H., Russell NH.
Autologous transplantation has an established role in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders, but allogeneic transplantation remains controversial. In an attempt to reduce the high procedure-related mortality reported with allografting in lymphoma, we have used BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan), a standard conditioning regimen for autologous transplantation. As BEAM may be insufficiently immunosuppressive to permit durable engraftment in the allogeneic setting, patients received additional pretransplant immunosuppression with the anti-CD52 antibody CAMPATH-1G from day -5 to day -1. Twelve patients (median age 46 years) underwent allogeneic transplantation for lymphoma (n = 11) or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 1) from HLA-identical (n = 9) or mismatched (n = 3) sibling donors. Cyclosporin A and methotrexate were used as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. One patient died of progressive lymphoma at day +12, the remaining 11 patients engrafted rapidly, with eight demonstrating full donor chimerism. One patient had an episode of rejection and received a further stem cell infusion with sustained recovery. Only one patient developed GVHD (grade I). The low incidence of acute GVHD may be in part related to persisting levels of in vivo CAMPATH-IG at the time of transplantation. Of 11 evaluable patients, nine achieved complete remission (CR), and a further patient achieved CR after donor lymphocyte infusion at 5 months. Our preliminary experience is that this regimen was well tolerated with a low risk of GVHD and appears no more toxic than a BEAM autograft. Further follow-up is required to see whether the low incidence of GVHD impacts upon relapse risk.