Detailed neuroscientific data from macaque monkeys have been essential in advancing understanding of human frontal cortex function, particularly for regions of frontal cortex without homologs in other model species. However, precise transfer of this knowledge for direct use in human applications requires an understanding of monkey to hominid homologies, particularly whether and how sulci and cytoarchitectonic regions in the frontal cortex of macaques relate to those in hominids. We combine sulcal pattern analysis with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and cytoarchitectonic analysis to show that old-world monkey brains have the same principles of organization as hominid brains, with the notable exception of sulci in the frontopolar cortex. This essential comparative framework provides insights into primate brain evolution and a key tool to drive translation from invasive research in monkeys to human applications.
Animals, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Frontal Lobe, Primates, Brain Mapping, Macaca, Cercopithecidae, Hominidae