Dementia prevention in memory clinics: recommendations from the European task force for brain health services
Frisoni GB., Altomare D., Ribaldi F., Villain N., Brayne C., Mukadam N., Abramowicz M., Barkhof F., Berthier M., Bieler-Aeschlimann M., Blennow K., Brioschi Guevara A., Carrera E., Chételat G., Csajka C., Demonet JF., Dodich A., Garibotto V., Georges J., Hurst S., Jessen F., Kivipelto M., Llewellyn DJ., McWhirter L., Milne R., Minguillón C., Miniussi C., Molinuevo JL., Nilsson PM., Noyce A., Ranson JM., Grau-Rivera O., Schott JM., Solomon A., Stephen R., van der Flier W., van Duijn C., Vellas B., Visser LNC., Cummings JL., Scheltens P., Ritchie C., Dubois B.
Observational population studies indicate that prevention of dementia and cognitive decline is being accomplished, possibly as an unintended result of better vascular prevention and healthier lifestyles. Population aging in the coming decades requires deliberate efforts to further decrease its prevalence and societal burden. Increasing evidence supports the efficacy of preventive interventions on persons with intact cognition and high dementia risk. We report recommendations for the deployment of second-generation memory clinics (Brain Health Services) whose mission is evidence-based and ethical dementia prevention in at-risk individuals. The cornerstone interventions consist of (i) assessment of genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors including brain pathology, and risk stratification, (ii) risk communication with ad-hoc protocols, (iii) risk reduction with multi-domain interventions, and (iv) cognitive enhancement with cognitive and physical training. A roadmap is proposed for concept validation and ensuing clinical deployment.