Integrated human-machine interface for closed-loop stimulation using implanted and wearable devices
Sladky V., Kremen V., McQuown K., Mivalt F., Brinkmann BH., Gompel JV., Miller KJ., Denison T., Worrell GA.
Recent development in implantable devices for electrical brain stimulation includes sensing and embedded computing capabilities that enable adaptive stimulation strategies. Applications include stimulation triggered by pathologic brain activity and endogenous rhythms, such as circadian rhythms. We developed and tested a system that integrates an electrical brain stimulation & sensing implantable device with embedded computing and uses a distributed system with commercial electronics, smartphone and smartwatch for patient annotations, extensive behavioral testing, and adaptive stimulation in subjects in their natural environments. The system enables precise time synchronization of the external components with the brain stimulating device and is coupled with automated analysis of continuous streaming electrophysiology synchronized with patient reports. The system leverages a real-time bi-directional interface between devices and patients with epilepsy living in their natural environment.