Transcriptome and fatty-acid signatures of adipocyte hypertrophy and its non-invasive MR-based characterization in human adipose tissue.
Honecker J., Ruschke S., Seeliger C., Laber S., Strobel S., Pröll P., Nellaker C., Lindgren CM., Kulozik U., Ecker J., Karampinos DC., Claussnitzer M., Hauner H.
BACKGROUND: The adipocyte-hypertrophy associated remodeling of fat cell function is considered causal for the development of metabolic disorders. A better understanding of transcriptome and fatty acid (FA) related alterations with adipocyte hypertrophy combined with less-invasive strategies for the detection of the latter can help to increase the prognostic and diagnostic value of adipocyte size and FA composition as markers for metabolic disease. METHODS: To clarify adipocyte-hypertrophy associated transcriptomic alterations, fat cell size was related to RNA-Seq data from white adipose tissue and size-separated adipocytes. The relationship between adipocyte size and adipose tissue FA composition as measured by GC-MS was investigated. MR spectroscopy (MRS) methods for clinical scanning were developed to characterize adipocyte size and FA composition in a fast and non-invasive manner. FINDINGS: With enlarged adipocyte size, substantial transcriptomic alterations of genes involved in mitochondrial function and FA metabolism were observed. Investigations of these two mechanisms revealed a reciprocal relationship between adipocyte size and estimated thermogenic adipocyte content as well as depot-specific correlations of adipocyte size and FA composition. MRS on a clinical scanner was suitable for the in-parallel assessment of adipose morphology and FA composition. INTERPRETATION: The current study provides a comprehensive overview of the adipocyte-hypertrophy associated transcriptomic and FA landscape in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. MRS represents a promising technique to translate the observed mechanistic, structural and functional changes in WAT with adipocyte hypertrophy into a clinical context for an improved phenotyping of WAT in the context of metabolic diseases. FUNDING: Competence network for obesity (FKZ 42201GI1128), ERC (No 677661, ProFatMRI; No 875488, FatVirtualBiopsy), Else Kröner-Fresenius-Foundation.