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BACKGROUND: Neurological conditions and mental health problems are common in children in low- and middle-income countries, but the risk factors and downstream impact of these problems on children with neurological conditions are not reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of neurological conditions with behavioural and emotional problems in children, the prevalence and risk factors of behavioural and emotional problems, and long-term impact of these conditions. METHODS: Data on multiple neurological conditions and mental health problems were available for 1,616 children (aged 6-9 years) from Kilifi, Kenya. Neurological conditions were diagnosed using standardised tools and clinical examination. Behavioural and emotional problems assessed using Child Behaviour Questionnaire for Parents. Long-term outcomes were obtained from census data of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Logistic and linear regression were used to measure associations. RESULTS: Mental health problems were higher in those with any neurological condition compared to those without (24% vs. 12%, p

Original publication




Journal article


Glob Health Action

Publication Date





Behavioural problems, children, emotional problems, mental health problems, neurological conditions