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Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are two related diseases which can be difficult to distinguish. There is no objective biomarker which can reliably differentiate between them. The synergistic combination of electrophysiological and neuroimaging approaches is a powerful method for interrogation of functional brain networks in vivo. We recorded bilateral local field potentials (LFPs) from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with simultaneous cortical magnetoencephalography (MEG) in six PDD and five DLB patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to look for differences in underlying resting-state network pathophysiology. In both patient groups we observed spectral peaks in the theta (2-8 Hz) band in both the NBM and the GPi. Furthermore, both the NBM and the GPi exhibited similar spatial and spectral patterns of coupling with the cortex in the two disease states. Specifically, we report two distinct coherent networks between the NBM/GPi and cortical regions: (1) a theta band (2-8 Hz) network linking the NBM/GPi to temporal cortical regions, and (2) a beta band (13-22 Hz) network coupling the NBM/GPi to sensorimotor areas. We also found differences between the two disease groups: oscillatory power in the low beta (13-22Hz) band was significantly higher in the globus pallidus in PDD patients compared to DLB, and coherence in the high beta (22-35Hz) band between the globus pallidus and lateral sensorimotor cortex was significantly higher in DLB patients compared to PDD. Overall, our findings reveal coherent networks of the NBM/GPi region that are common to both DLB and PDD. Although the neurophysiological differences between the two conditions in this study are confounded by systematic differences in DBS lead trajectories and motor symptom severity, they lend support to the hypothesis that DLB and PDD, though closely related, are distinguishable from a neurophysiological perspective.

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Basal forebrain, Basal ganglia, Human, Network, Pallidum