Efficient Doxorubicin Loading to Isolated Dexosomes of Immature JAWSII Cells: Formulated and Characterized as the Bionanomaterial.
Mutlu EC., Kaya Ö., Wood M., Mager I., Topkara KÇ., Çamsarı Ç., Birinci Yildirim A., Çetinkaya A., Acarel D., Odabaşı Bağcı J.
Immature dendritic cells (IDc), 'dexosomes', are promising natural nanomaterials for cancer diagnose and therapy. Dexosomes were isolated purely from small-scale-up production by using t25-cell-culture flasks. Total RNA was measured as 1.43 ± 0.33 ng/106 cell. Despite the fact that they possessed a surface that is highly abundant in protein, this did not become a significant effect on the DOX loading amount. Ultrasonication was used for doxorubicin (DOX) loading into the IDc dexosomes. In accordance with the literature, three candidate DOX formulations were designed as IC50 values; dExoIII, 1.8 µg/mL, dExoII, 1.2 µg/mL, and dExoI, 0.6 µg/mL, respectively. Formulations were evaluated by MTT test against highly metastatic A549 (CCL-185; ATTC) cell line. Confocal images of unloaded (naïve) were obtained by CellMaskTM membrane staining before DOX loading. Although, dexosome membranes were highly durable subsequent to ultrasonication, it was observed that dexosomes could not be stable above 70 °C during the SEM-image analyses. dExoIII displayed sustained release profile. It was found that dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) results were in good agreement with each other. Zeta potentials of loaded dexosomes have approximately between -15 to -20 mV; and, their sizes are 150 nm even after ultrasonication. IDcJAWSII dexosomes can be able to be utilized as the "BioNanoMaterial" after DOX loading via ultrasonication technique.