Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterised by the emergence of pathological patterns of oscillatory synchronisation across the cortico-basal-ganglia circuit. The relationship between anatomical connectivity and oscillatory synchronisation within this system remains poorly understood. We address this by integrating evidence from invasive electrophysiology, magnetoencephalography, tractography and computational modelling in patients. Coupling between supplementary motor area (SMA) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) within the high beta frequency (21-30 Hz) range correlated with fibre tract densities between these two structures. Additionally within the STN, non-linear waveform features suggestive of cortical synchronisation correlated with cortico-STN fibre densities. Finally, computational modelling revealed that exaggerated hyperdirect cortical inputs to the STN in the upper beta frequency range can provoke the generation of widespread pathological synchrony at lower beta (13-20 Hz) frequencies. These observations reveal a spectral signature of the hyperdirect pathway at high beta frequencies and provide evidence for its pathophysiological role in oscillatory network dysfunction in PD.