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Since the completion of the human and mouse genomes, the focus in mammalian biology has been on assessing gene function. Tools are needed for assessing the phenotypes of the many mouse models that are now being generated, where genes have been "knocked out," "knocked in," or mutated, so that gene expression can be understood in its biological context. Metabolic profiling of cardiac tissue through high resolution NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate statistics has been used to classify mouse models of cardiac disease. The data sets included metabolic profiles from mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, two models of cardiac arrhythmia, and one of cardiac hypertrophy. The metabolic profiles demonstrate that the strain background is an important component of the global metabolic phenotype of a mouse, providing insight into how a given gene deletion may result in very different responses in diverse populations. Despite these differences associated with strain, multivariate statistics were capable of separating each mouse model from its control strain, demonstrating that metabolic profiles could be generated for each disease. Thus, this approach is a rapid method of phenotyping mouse models of disease.

Original publication




Journal article


J Biol Chem

Publication Date





7530 - 7539


Animals, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Disease Models, Animal, Genome, Heart Diseases, Humans, Hypertrophy, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Mutant Strains, Models, Statistical, Multivariate Analysis, Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne, Phenotype, Species Specificity, Tissue Distribution