© 2019 IEEE. Increased oscillatory activities in the beta frequency band (13-30 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and in particular prolonged episodes of increased synchrony in this frequency band, have been associated with motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have investigated sensorimotor cortical beta oscillations either as a control signal for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) or as target signal for neurofeedback training (NFB). However, it still remains unknown whether patients with PD can gain control of the pathological oscillations recorded from a subcortical site - the STN - with neurofeedback training. We tried to address this question in the current study. Specifically, we designed a simple basketball game, in which the position of a basketball changes based on the occurrence of events of temporally increased beta power quantified in real-time. Participants practised in the game to control the position of the basketball, which requires modulation of the beta oscillations recorded from STN local field potentials (LFPs). Our results suggest that it is possible to use neurofeedback training for PD patients to downregulate pathological beta oscillations in STN LFPs, and that this can lead to a reduction of beta oscillations in the cortical-STN motor network.
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