Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The cell cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1 is phosphorylated and activated by ATR in response to DNA damage and is crucial for initiating the DNA damage response. A number of factors act in concert with ATR to facilitate Chk1 phosphorylation, including Rad17-RFC, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, TopBP1 and Claspin. Rad17 is required for loading of Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) onto sites of DNA damage. Although phosphorylation of Rad17 by ATR is required for checkpoint function, how this affects 9-1-1 regulation remains unclear. We report that exposure of cells to DNA damage or replication stress results in Rad17-dependent immobilisation of Rad9 into nuclear foci. Furthermore, expression of mutant Rad17 that cannot be phosphorylated by ATR (Rad17(AA)), or downregulation of ATR, results in a decreased number of cells that display Rad9 foci. Photobleaching experiments reveal an increase in the dynamic behaviour of Rad9 within remaining foci in the absence of ATR or following expression of Rad17(AA). Together, these data suggest a model in which Rad17 and ATR collaborate in regulating Rad9 localisation and association at sites of DNA damage.

Original publication




Journal article


J Cell Sci

Publication Date





3933 - 3940


3T3 Cells, Animals, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cells, Cultured, Checkpoint Kinase 1, DNA Damage, DNA Replication, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, HeLa Cells, Humans, Mice, Phosphorylation, Protein Kinases, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Transfection